23.02.2011 г.

  На главную раздела "Академик Сапунов В.Б."

На главную раздела "Академик Сапунов В.Б."



Variability of reptiles and striking questions

          The most striking exponent of Berlin paleontology museum is skeleton of giant fossil reptile – Brachiosaurus. This monstrous of Jurassic period had weight about 50 ton. There were no other such a big animal at the land during history of the Earth. The reason of such a big size is obscure. There are many other secrets connected with reptiles. Let us follow principles of scientific consideration of materials. For begin we must consider detection and classification. Reptiles are high organized class of vertebrate, appearing at the Perm period – the end of Paleozoic era. It was dry time, and reptiles were adopted for deficiency of water. They belong to ecological group Amniota, that is animal all ontogenesis of which may be at the land. Reptiles consist of some orders. Dinosaurs are fossil and extinct group. Crocodiles have the same geological age that dinosaurs, but modern are smaller than ancient. Turtles are vide spread modern group living at south and as a hidden species surviving in Germany. Modern turtles are smaller that fossil ones too. The most populated and vide spread of modern reptiles are Squamata – scales, that is lizards and snakes. Sailors speak that giant snake lives in see.

          Let us list the most striking question connected with reptiles.

  1. Why dinosaurs extinct and crocodiles decreased size?
  2. Did dinosaurs really extinct?
  3. Were able dinosaurs got civilization having form close to man?
  4. Why dinosaurs gotted  such a big sizes?
  5. What is sea snake and Nessi monstrous?

Well known facts of dinosaurs

          Diversity of dinosaurs was shaking. Some of them were adopted to water environment - such as ichtiosaure, mezosaure. Some of them were adopted to land. The biggest of them was brachiosaur, which beautiful skeleton is demonstrated in Berlin paleonthological museum.

          There are some indirect data of bigger dinosaur, possible name - giganotosaurus, having 35 meters length! Dinosaur occupied air too. Flying dinosaurs had a big diversity. Pteronodon had wings 10 meters.

          Some old popular books consider dinosaurs as slow primitive and fool animals. According to modern paleonthological data they were complicated and progressive. They had warm blood, 4-cabin hart and complicated behaviors as modern mammalian. The fist scientist suggesting this fact was Russian evolutionist of German roots L.S.Berg, considering this questions in book «Nomogenesis», publishing in Petrograd in 1922. Following scientific efforts and records supported ideas of Berg. The footprints patterns suggested existence of collective behavior, nursery of progeny. The tracks of herd suggested organized pattern of animals - males, females and children. Such complicated behavior is not typical for modern reptiles.

          Unfortunately, such an odd animal groups suffocated to Paleogen age. The cause of suffocation is unclear. Some specialists suggested that the cause was ecological crisis because of giant meteorite or asteroid dropping. May be, modern Mexican gulf is track of such a dropping. Dinosaurs were changed for mammalians. The last burned the extremely progressive generum Homo - the man!

          Dinosaur disappeared 65-70 millions years earlier. Hence, there is giant distance between man and dinosaur and meeting of them is impossible. Almost impossible, but…

Evolution of biosphere

          All living world is under state of development. This development is evolution. C. Darwin in 19 century suggested main mechanism of evolution – natural selection; this is surviving and proliferation of organisms having maximal adaptive potencies.

          The general theory of biosphere surviving was suggested by of V. I. Vernadsky (1926, 1975). According to theory,

  1. The mass of biosphere is constant. According to modern data, summarized by Russian scientist Th. Dobzhansky, M.Kamshilov, this wet mass is 250 000 000 000 ton.
  2. Biosphere is organized as ecological pyramid. It describes relations between plants and animals. Every following flow has mass less 10 - 100 times. That is, 100 kg of plant mass need 1 kg animal mass. 1 kg of predators needs 10 kg of preys.
  3. The range distribution of species within orders and classes is asymmetrical. That is, majority of species belongs to some orders. The distribution of specimens within species is asymmetrical too.

          The theoretical figure of such a distribution is demonstrated in fig.1 and accorded to formula:

     f(n) = A + B e-Cn, where A, B, C - constants.

 Fig.1. Theoretical distribution specimens-species.

          This rules of existence of biosphere are actual under all geological ages. For restoration of ancient biosphere methods of taphonomy are enough effective.


          The image of ancient biosphere is restored by fossil records. According to C.Darwin, it is incompleteness. Despite of giant progress in paleontology, incompleteness is actual till now. That’s why image of old world is obscure. There are many different evolution theories. They are separated into two groups. Gradualism suggested by Lamark and Darwin postulates permanent and continuous transformation of species. Punktualism suggested by Cuvie and Berg postulate jumps during evolution, sudden appearance of a new form without intermediated organisms. Even fixism, declorating absence of evolution, survives till now. Its postulates are confirmed by information and testimonies on live animals that are considered as extinct. For example, dinosaurs. Not all of the testimonies are significant. But time of surviving of many species, appeared to be more, that declorate tradition paleontology. Great soviet scientists and writer Ivan Efremov suggested tafonomy as science on safety and destruction of organic remains in 1950. Methods of this science are effective tool for reconstruction of past biota basing on fragment remains.

          According to modern paradigma, evolution is extinction of old species and burning of a new. The process is considered as irreversible. The axioms "one way evolution" appeared to be right, but not absolutely right. Sometimes appearance and disappearance of species may be illusive. Important character of evolution is oscillation of population under safing of general diversity.

          Safety of dead body is incomplete. The body destruction is controlled by 1). Chemical destruction, 2). Water streams destruction 3). Mechanical destruction by soil dynamic 4). Anthropogenic artificial destruction. And so on.

          The first days after dead the destruction of biological mass depends on time by exponent. A new dead body is free ecological niche for necrophags and it is occupied by the speed of geometrical progression. After stabilization of a new ecological system, destruction become less biological and more chemical process. The dependence destruction - time is quadrate. The speed and direction of reaction is constant, and mass is equal to speed and surface where reaction exists. The surface is equal to quarter of length. The process may be described by mathematical models.

          The whole skeletons are available but some exception. As a rule paleontologists deals with some bones. 5 - 10 of them randomly selected from skeleton are sufficient for identification of species. Typical vertebrate skeleton has 100 - 250 bones. Species having less 5% of one skeleton appeared to be hidden.

          During my work at region Kostenky (Woronezh land) paleolit excavation I got the following data. During time 20 000 - 25 000 yeas ago 140 000 mammoths and 300 000 people were there. About 70 - 100 mammoth remains having about 10% of skeleton and 4 man skeleton having different safety scale was founded. According to essay (see Pterodactilus 14 - 2003, page 21) species, close to big primate but having population density 20 - 25 times less than Homo sapiens fossils may be missed by fossil records. Kostenky excavation fixed about 50 % of mammals and mollusks, that is organisms, having skeletons. Let us name real species missed by fossil records as hidden.

          Evolution is not only appearance and disappearance of species. Evolution sometimes is change of population size. According to Russian scientist V.Vernadsky, the main characters of biosphere are stable. Hence, modeling past biosphere we must keep in minder that species diversity is equal at every age.

          Hidden species are reserve of biosphere. They are able occupy every niche that become free from other species. That why biosphere is extremely resistant.

          Majority of species appear earlier and disappeared later that was declorated by tradition paleontology. This idea did not suggest reality of man-dinosaur meeting but suggest that the meeting is not only fiction.

Diversity of dinosaurs sizes

          Dinosaurs are well known as giant reptiles. This opinion is not absolutely correct.

          There are following principles describing animal diversity in relation to size. Organisms of every biological taxon have maximal and minimal size. The limits are controlled by solidity, chemical composition, physiology. Fundamental limit is strength of bones. Animal of cetacean size may live only in water. For flying animal fundamental limits are principles of air dynamics and effectivity of muscles. Animal more that 20 - 25 kg is unable for flight. That’s why biggest birds like ostrich are unable for flight.

          Dependence between size and population is negative. The bigger is organism, the less is population and vice versa. Giants are rare, pigmies are vide spread. The dependence size-population is negative, like dependence number of species-population (see fig. 2 and relate with fig.1).

 Fig.2. Dependence size-population

          The curve is not absolute. There are optimal sizes, more spread that minimal one. Let us consider modern example. Primates, including man are well studied group. Maximal size have gorilla – very rare ape from Red book. There are data, that such hypothetical primate as abominable snowman is bigger that ape, and it is rarer than gorilla. This fact is indirect data on reality of Wildman. Monkeys of little size, such as marmoset are vide spread. But maximal population have man – Homo sapiens, the primate of maximal fitness.

          Important evolution phenomena is convergence - similarity based on close environment without genetical similarity. Some dinosaurs looked like modern mammalian. Ichtiosaure looked like dolphin, iguanodon looked like kangaroo. Did dinosaur like man existed? According some scientists (including Karl Sagan) suggested "mansaure". One bone, possibly belonging to it is safed in New York museum of natural history. The bone was excavated in Alberta at 1917. Such possible creature might have a material culture. But its remain were distructed according to taphonomy laws. Modern specialists in the archeology have serious doubt about our reconstruction of historical times, distance from us for some thousand years. Historical facts having age some millions years are almost unable for reconstruction.

          The hypothesis on "mansaur" or “homosaur” is most real from all listed above facts. The final decision of the problem may be gotten in future.

          Let us return to dinosaurs. Giant were rare, middle and minimal forms were vide spread. Giant are more popular because 2 facts. According to laws of taphonomy big bones are safety better that little one. Giant looked more fantastic and more interest. Finding of their bones suggested tales on dragons. But majority of dinosaurs were little having the same size variability that modern mammals. Almost the same.

Why so big?

          The biggest animal lived in all Earth history is cetacean. But it lives only within water. Such a big animal can’t exist at the land. The biggest animal of modern land are elephants, having mass till 7.5 ton. Some millions years ago such mammals as Megatherium and Indricotheruim, having mass till 15 ton existed. Dinosaurs were bigger. Brontosaurs got mass 20-25 ton, Brachiosaurs – 50 ton. There is previous data on existence of Gigantosaurs having more size. Let us return – general principles of dependence size-population were the same during all ages. But maximal size of land animals decrease. Why so? Vide spread comments for dinosaurs size is following. They had amphibian ecology, spending many times within water, like modern hippopotamus. Such idea is not serious. Hippopotamus are active at land and have high locomotion activity. This animal looks like lazy fat creature in Berlin zoo, but it is dangerous fast aggressor in wild nature. Really, some dinosaurs like plesiosaurs have adaptation for water. But organization of Brontosaurs and Brachiosaurus have no characters of water adaptation! The same problems deals with flying dinosaurs. The biggest modern flying birds as pelicans have mass till 20 kg. Flying Pteranodons have mass till 30 kg. It is well known that crocodiles lived under Mesozoic age were bigger than modern one. For prolonging this theme, I will add the following fact. Flying insects of Paleozoic age were bigger than modern, some of them, including dragon-fly Meganevra got size of modern bird.  Why so? The more real hypothesis is that gravitation field increased during geological history. The mass of earth increased because of meteorites dripping, but such an increase is not significant. May be, that more significant processes took place. The physics of Earth nucleus is obscure till today. At the end of 19 century scientists O. Heaviside and J.Poincare suggested relativity principles and equalities of mass and energy according to formula

          E = mc2

          This equation often is ascribed to Einstein, but it is not correct. Great Russian scientist N.Kozyrev checked that nuclear activity is not enough for solar reaction. He detected at the end of 20 century a new space field – field of time. He suggested that energy of time may transformed nuclear energy and mass. Time energy is source of stars activity and planet evolution. May be, time energy transforms to mass within Earth nucleus. If 21 century science will check this hypothesis the sizes of prehistoric animals would be clear.  

Could dinosaur survive later official dating

          Did such progressive group as dinosaures extincted at all?

          Babylon is oldest city wit age more than 5 000 years. The gate entrance "Ishtar" were bilted at 7 age b.c. There are some realistic animal images at the gates. Between them is creature looking likeу brontosaure. Some time ago sculpture of somebody like stegosaur was found at the wall of ancient Cambodian temple, constructed at 1181. We can’t answer question – is it dinosaurs or modern hidden reptile looking like dinosaur.

          American zoologist Ivan Sanderson collected many testimonies on living dinosaurs. City Lion Falls is 200 miles from New York. The Black river is close to Lion Falls. Many aborigens saw creature looking like dinosaurs at the river.

          Many strange testimonies were collected in Africa. из Африки. At 1933 young Sanderson was in Kameroon jungles. He saw a living dinosaur - pterodactylus. According to Sanderson, aborigenes knew on the animal and afraid of it. Sanderson consider living pterodactylus as giant. I can’t agreet with it. Fossil records suggest that it was little - like pigeon. Animal more 20-25 kg can’t flight according to aerodynamic laws. Two testimonies on creatures like pterodactyls were at area of St.Petersburg district. There is information from central Africa jungles on  creature Mokele - Mbembe. It looked like tyrannosaur. The first information for European science on it was within materials of German expeditions conducted by Stain von Lauznits. He did nit see creature, but collected aborigines tales. According to them, it looked like great lizard and hunts for hypo. German scientists saw tracks of monstrous, but did not have final conclusion on reality of creature. Then a new testimonies were recorded. Famous American scientist Ivan Sanderson saw it at Cameroon jungles at 1932. Ivan wrote "The crying of creature was terrible lime bomb explosure. After it my conductors-aborigines felled down. I saw a head at a big distance - it was like the whole body of adult hypo. We run away like sprinters"... At the same year South Africa hunter F.Hobler saw predator creature at north Angola. Some aborigines told that it is not predator but grass eating. At 1938 г. Belgian hunter Lepage saw creature in Kongo jungles. He told that its length was 12 m. Footprint has 3 fingers. Secretary of international cryptozoological society Roy Mackal  visited Zair within 1981 - 1982 and published interest book "Living dinosaur - Michele Member". According to author, alive dinosaur is like Iguanodon or Tyrannosaur. Ecology of them is different. The first is grass-eating, the second - preys eating. As for me, the second hypothesis is more real. Predators have population less then one of grass eating 10 times and may be more hidden. The question on African dinosaur is obscure till now. I must add, that majority of dinosaurs were not giant. According to taphonomy law, the biggest have more possibility to safe their bones during many years. The relation size-population of dinosaurs was the same that of modern mammalian. Little dinosaurs have more possibility to safe till now. We may conclude that present species diversity is unclear till now. 5 million species are known, general quantity is bigger many times.

Strange adventures of crocodiles

          Some years ago my father, professor of Russian history Boris Sapunov, suggested following information. There is ancient Russian chronicle describing the incident involving the supposed crocodilians at the city Pskov on the Velikaya river, about 645 km northwest of Moscow, and about 240 km southwest of St. Petersburg. That is approximal translation of manuscript –

          – In 1582, some terrible animals, that is crocodiles, came from the river. The animals began to attack the populace. Many people were bitten by the crocodiles. Everybody was frightened, and began to pray to God. Soon afterwards, some of the crocodiles were killed, and some of the other animals escaped.

          Of interest here is the zoogeographical question of whether the reported reptiles, where from a natural breeding population or from a temporary population introduced by humans. Modern crocodilians – which include the crocodiles (at least 13 species), the gavials or gharyals (probably 2 species) and the alligators (at least 7 species) – are thought to be physiologically restricted to tropical and sub-tropical regions. Although the ranges of two species, the American alligator and Chinese alligator, penetrate temperature zones were freezing temperature sometimes occur crocodilians almost certainly would not survive in a natural state in the far colder boreal regions of northern Russia.

          The northernmost historical presence of crocodilians in the Old World is at about 32 degrees north latitude, where Egipts Nile river enters the Mediterranean Sea. This is the habitat of the much-feared Nile crocodile. Its length may get 6 m. The fossil Mesozoic crocodiles were 12 meter length.

          The question is. Where the chronicle gives a true account, and where crocodilians were, in fact, responsible for the account. I am sure, that the account was in fact relaying authentic historical information. Russian word the crocodile was clear to educated 16th century Russians, having been introduced from the Greek. In the 11th century, the writings of an Egyptian monk were translated into Russian, and these containing the first description of the crocodile in Russian. Numerous other works containing discussions of crocodiles were translated into Russian. There is no doubt concerning the correct identification of the Pskov animal.

          Because of anatomical and physiological aspects of crocodilians, such reptiles could not possibly survive the severity of Russian winters. As no other reports of crocodilians exist from either before or after the event of Pskov, the animals were briefly introduced into the wild by animal trader.

          One of the closest accessible regions which harbored crocodilians was Egypt, and Russia in fact had contacts with that country in the 16th century. It is known that, in 1559, a Russian cultural delegation headed by a trader named Vasili Pozdnyakov visited Cairo. In 1582 the Russian counselor Trifon Korobeinokov traveled in Egypt, subsequently published a well-known book on his voyage. Other Russians also visited Egypt, and all later wrote details about the striking appearance of the giant reptiles known as crocodiles.

          Pskov lay on an important trade route between the Middle East and northern Europe, and many Arab traders crossed the route. Caravan of Arab merchants may have taken such crocodiles from Egypt to Russia as a gift to a wealthy personage, or, alternatively, to use in carnival exhibits. The exhibition of exotic animals was inbreed quite common in Russia in that century.

          In the first half of the 16th century, Sigismund Gerberstein, Austrian diplomat, published a book titled Notes on Moscow Land. In it, he wrote about giant reptiles that were being bred in captivity in Lithuania. The information provided indicates that the reptiles were either crocodilian of monitor lizard. Belonging them to surviving dinosaurs is less real, but not fantastic at all. Furthermore, that the best route from the south to Lithuania passed through Pskov. Transportation of such crocodiles was not a difficult task, as such reptiles can be kept for some time without food or water. An old Russian system for transportation live fish may have been used. This involves special fish barges with continuous water flow in order to keep the fish trapped but alive.

          It is possible to conclude, that 1582, a number of Egyptian crocodiles – presumably Nile crocodile – were being transported live through the Pskov region when something caused their accidental release. The reptiles were then able to survive for some time in the Velikaya river, subsisting on fish, and, it seems, humans. The ones which were not killed, must have died during the subsequent winter, as no mention is made of them again in any Russian chronicle.             

Nessi is not reptile

          The question on living dinosaurs is one of the most famous in modern cryptozoology. I believe in possibility of little dinosaurs, living in wild nature like usual lizards. But what about big dinosaurs? There are many data on strange giant animals, looking like plesiosaurus in some lakes. It is well known phenomena of lake Champlain in North America, lakes Taimyr and Lob-Norr in Siberia. But the most popular is monstrous of lake Loch Ness from Scotland. Let us consider this example.

          The enigma of Loch  Ness is well known all over the World. Statements by almost every writers on the Loch Ness Monster (LNM) suggest that the late 6th century sighting associated  with St.Columba has now become an article of faith. Till know enigma is not resolved. The present work is toward understanding of phenomena.

          Let us listed all known hypothesis.

  1. LNM is fiction, suggested by liars and bad journalists. Such "hypothesis" is not real because of too much number of real data.
  2. LNM is mistification by any group of wags. This hypothesis is not real too because information on LNM has 1 400 years old.
  3. LNM is vizitor from another planets. Such a hypothesis may exist. But I am sure, that the more simple is hypothesis, the more probable is it. UFO hypothesis is not simple.
  4. Metheorology hypothesis suggests that confrontation between two streams of air may get up the water appendix that is like head of monster. Such a hypothesis is  interest, but  is invalid for describing all phenomena connected with LNM.
  5. According to some  scientists, intensive rot processes take place within Loch Ness lake. This processes product gases. They are able to elevate rot wood and so on. The pieces may be considered as monster. But this hypothesis is invalid for understanding motion of LNM, its visits to coast, footprints and so on.
  6. Lake Loch Ness is characterized by abnormal optical phenomena that looks like monster. But why LNM is fixed in water by sonars?
  7. LNM is complex of rot alga. This hypothesis is not real because of previous causes.

    Next number of hypothesis appeared to be zoological ones.

  8. LNM is fish.
  9. LNM is mollusk.
  10. LNM is mammals.
  11. LNM is reptiles. The most vide spread position is that LNM is plesiosaur that is water dinosaur extinct 60-70 years ago.

          I am sure that zoological hypothesis are the most real. I'll suggest a new hypothesis No 12. I shell use methods of cryptozoology that is science founded by me. Cryptobiology is approach to understanding of different biological phenomena under deficiency of information. It is the next stage of development of cryptozoology founded by Heuvelmans (1958).

          Let us consider plesiosaur hypothesis as most serious and connecting with the theme of modern article. The fossil reptiles is known from 1824 year, when the first skeleton was described. It was not first finding. Dragons from folk loure tales are similar to plesiosaur. Typical dragon is plesiosaur having three heads. May be, this tales are based on finding of giant bones of dinosaurs. Plesiosaur is big water lizard 13 m long. The nake is very long having 76 vertebras. Morphology of plesiosaur is appropriate for water life. His long body has a good hydrodynamic characteristics. Legs ofthe reptile were transformed into flippers. According to testimonies, LNM looks like plesiosaur. But does this similarity real? May be, it was result of convergence? Let us list the most significant data on LNM.

  1. Animal is big having some meter long and some ton weight.
  2. Population is small but stable.
  3. Sometimes LNM appears at coast, sometimes its head are at the water in the air. But such facts are rare.
  4. Data of babies of LNM are obscure.

          Hence, we have deficiency of significant facts. But existed facts may be useful. Let us analyze these facts. Our position must be that LNM is real animal living according to known biological principles. Let us check the number of animals in lake Loch Ness is not big. The long is 40 km, the width is 1 km, surface is 56 square km. LNM must be predator - the only food resources for them may be fishes. The lake is oligothrophic. That is concentration of biological matter within water is slow. Average year increment of biological mass of fishes in such a lake may be between 15-60 kg from hectare per year. The same for all lake is 84 - 336 ton. The muss of every LNM is not less than 1 ton. Every year predators eat 5 - 10 of own weights. Hence, every LNM eats this mass per year. The muss of predator must be less than mass of preys 10 times. Hence, the mass of all LNMs must be not more than 50 - 100 ton. Number of them is some tenths. Hence, population is small. What about systematic position of LNM? It must be vertebrate, but not plesiosaur. All reptiles breathe by atmosphere air. Hence, long time they have to be out of the water (or to get head out of the water). Even turtles good adopted to water use open air 5 - 10% of their life. If the same is true for LNM, every moment one head must be seen  at  the surface of lake. The same is true for water mammalian (dolphins and so on). Hence, LNM is not mammals.

          Eggs of all reptiles are adopted to development out of the water. Hence, plesiosaur must ovipose at the coast. These facts for LNM was fixed never time. The most possible variant is that LNM is amphibian. All amphibian proliferate in water and may use oxigenium dissolved in water very long time. Tailed amphibian (e.g. newt) lived in water practically all over the time. Larvae’s of amphibian have only gills (without lung) and looks like fish. Some amphibian (e.g. acsolotl) have  only larvae stage within living circle. If LNM is amphibian, become clear the fact, that witnesses saw only adult forms. Larvae lives in deep water and look like fish. May be they were cached by fish men but not identified.

          Amphibian may be very big. E.g. giant Japan salamander has 2 meter long. The biggest fossil amphibian was mastodonsausus lived in Carbon and Perm period. It weighted till 5 ton! The scull of this monster excavated in Germany was 1 meter long. Mastonsaurus was dangerous predator eating fishes. According to paleontology data, this reptile lived only in water. Scientists think that mastodonsaurus extinct 150 000 000 years ago. May be, some of them adopted to new environment and are alive till now? Of cause, LNM is not real mastodonsaurus, but may have origin from it.

          Population of LNM is stable during many years. What is type of proliferation? Population less than 100 specimens are unable to be stable because of inbreeding depression. Lethal and semilethal mutations must become homozygous and decrease fitness of population. Are there any possibility to prevent inbreeding depression? Such a way is parthenogenic reproduction. A good genotype may be reproduced without depression during long time. Parthenogenic population consists only  from  mothers without fathers. Parthenogenesis is wide spread in amphibian. Even usual frog may get this type of proliferation, having only larvae stage (e.g. acsolotl).

          Hence, LNM may be parthenogenic neothenic form of prehistoric amphibia. The hypothesis is accorded to modern biology.

          Finishing this chapter, some words on other hypothetical reptile, that is sea snake. May be, obscure sailors information is based on real animal. But this animal can’t be reptiles, because of facts, listed above. Reptiles need air for permanent respiration and land for proliferation.

Amphibia – dinosaurs – mammals. What more?

          Paleozoic was era of amphibian. Under amphibian age, forests were consisted from giant miospore plant, such as ferns. The structure of biosphere was the same that now. 100 kg of giant ferns were accompanied by 1 kg of giant amphibian. 190 Million years before our age a giant ecological “perestroika” took place. The climate became hotter and more wet. Mesozoic age began. Amphibian, being musters of land, began to suffocate. They did not extinct at all, some of them survived as frogs, triton et. al. The new musters were reptilian, mainly dinosaur. Mammals existed too as a hidden class. Forests of this time consisted from pine plants. 100 kg of pine plants were accompanied by 1 kg of dinosaur mass. 60 – 70 millions years ago a new perestroika took place. Because of asteroid dropping climate was changed. Mammals became dominant group. Dinosaurs became hidden or extinct group. The general biosphere structure state constant. 100 kg of plants per 1 kg of animals. 10 kg of preys per 1 kg of predators.

          Mammals produced thinking form, that is man. May be, dinosaurs produced thinking form, that is homosaurus. Amphibian were able to produce man-amphibian. We have not scientific data on it. But possibility of such an organism is not fiction.

          In future, in accordance to law of evolution, mammals would get status of hidden class, like order of dinosaurs, like big progressive amphibian. What group of organisms would became musters of the biosphere? What species from this group will found a new civilization. Let reader of journal «Kryptozoologie Report» would think on this questions.



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